Guantanamo province is the most oriental in Cuba, call in principle Santa Catalina de Saltadero, the city it changed name and it grew quickly at the beginning of the century XIX when great number of French refugees, coming from the rebellion of slaves in the island of La Española, they settled in the area, the French influence is reflected in the architecture of many buildings in Guantanamo.
Their capital is the Guantanamo City. The province limits with the American naval base of the Bay of Guantanamo. It occupies the tenth place among the provinces of the country for their extension and for their population. Population 243.808 inhabitants (2007).
Toward the north of the region the relief prevails with elevations and to the this northeast one the mountains of Nipe - Sagua - Baracoa (that dominate the province, dividing as much the climate as the landscape) with the predominant height in the Sierra del Curial, The Cat pick (1.181 m), to the Southwest the Sierra Maestra that is alternated with valleys as those of Guantanamo, Guaso and Sabanalamar..
The main lagoon is La Salada and its biggest reservoirs are La Yaya and El Jaibo.
The architecture of Guantanamo and their culture are different from those of the rest of Cuba. The province is only to 80 Km. of Haiti in their nearer point, through the El Paso Windward. Guantanamo also has a high number of immigrants from Jamaica, reason for which many buildings are comparable with those of the French neighbourhood of New Orleans.
The economy of the province is based on the coconut productions, coffee, cocoa, salt, cane sugar and several agricultural cultivations, although the productions of valves and industrial bombs grow, bicycles, hand tools for the agriculture, furniture of the home, and the contributions of dissimilar plants of the alimentary and graphic industries.
The art is characterized by the folklore, represented by the Changüí, native rhythm of the province, the French tomb and other many traditions.
Baracoa city it's another very important city of the province. It is the first city been founded by the Spaniards in Cuba, in 1512.
One of their main attractiveness is La Farola viaduct, with eleven hanging bridges to the abysm, and whose maximum height is to the 600 meters, in Altos de Cotilla.
Winding among mountains, to a side one imposing promontory and to the other side the profound abyss, La Farola viaduct, connects the north and south costs of Guantanamo after crossing an abrupt mountain range that confers to the itinerary a singular attractiveness. The vial work constitutes one of the most complex and important executions in the Cuban civil engineering.
In the city church, the only one Cruz de la Parra is conserved, the first Christian symbol of Cuba, placed by Christopher Columbus.